There are many ways to tackle concurrency as Alex Miller's 'Cuckoo for Concurrency' shows. In this post, he points you toward the use of Actors on both Java's Virtual Machine(JVM) and Erlang, as well as alternative concurrency paradigms on the JVM. Read Alex Miller's entire post 'Cuckoo for Concurrency': http://tech.puredanger.com/2009/03/27/cuckoo-for-concurrency/