First, a little bit of background and metaphor
In the medieval times, apprentices would work in workshops an would be mentored by senior craftsmen (journeymen) or by the master craftsman himself. The apprentice had the responsibility to learn, observing the master's and everyone else's work, questioning everything and practising as much as he could. This was different from the teacher/student relationship where the teacher had the responsibility to teach. Here it was the apprentice that had to push his own development.
The apprentice, mentored by the master, would learn and refine his skills on a daily basis. Over time, the master would reach his limit as in what he could teach the apprentice and the knowledge and skills gap between both would not be that big any more. The master would then publicly recognise the apprentice as a professional that could take on work on his own and would deliver it with the same quality that the he would deliver himself. The master, at this point, would be putting his own reputation on the line since he was the one that trained the apprentice and was now vouching for his ability.
This would be the graduation point. Now the apprentice was ready to start his own journey, as a journeyman. As a journeyman, he would then go from town to town, work for and learn from different masters up to a point that he would be recognised by all of these masters and other craftsmen as a master himself. He would then be ready to have his own shop and start mentoring other journeymen and apprentices.
Back to the present
From now on, instead of master/apprentice, I'll be using mentor/mentee. The main reason is that you don't need to be a master craftsman to mentor someone. You also don't need to be an apprentice to have a mentor. Besides that, each developer has different areas of expertise. They can be very senior in certain areas and completely ignorant in other areas. As we all know, software development is not as limited as a blacksmith's workshop in the medieval times.
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