A RESTful Core for Web-like Application Flexibility - Part 1

In this article, we will briefly explore some of the ways in which bindings are done and the impact that the choice of binding method has on system flexibility and performance.


It may seem strange to start a series of articles about REST systems and the RESTful design approach with such a low level issue as binding. After all, REST is a "high level" idea that originated from a post hoc analysis of why the World Wide Web works so well [1]. However, if you'll allow us to ground the discussion at this level, I think you'll see that binding is an essential aspect of RESTful systems.

What is binding? Wikipedia [2] defines it as "the association of values with identifiers" and continues "Binding is intimately connected with scoping, as scope determines when binding occurs". In other words, binding is the association of a logical "name" with something physical in code, such as the memory location for a variable or the entry point of a method.

As developers, we are so accustomed to the idea of binding that we probably don't think about it very much. We write code such as

for (i = 0; i < SIZE; i++) {...}

without thinking about the physical memory location used for the for-loop's increment value. Who cares if it's at address B65A435 or CD55D43D, as long as the programming language abstraction is preserved and we can always refer to that location by the name "i"?

In this article, we will briefly explore some of the ways in which bindings are done and the impact that the choice of binding method has on system flexibility and performance.

Binding in Java

One of the main functions of a Java Virtual Machine is to find and load only those classes which are actually used by a running program. The JVM does this at runtime in a process known as dynamic linking. When you compile Java source files, the Java compiler creates class files that contain symbolic references to each other and to the class files of the Java runtime libraries. During the process of dynamic linking, the JVM must resolve the symbolic references in the class files and replace them with direct references to the data structures in memory which represent the loaded classes.

While there is some flexibility in when it can occur, every JVM classloader uses a Resolution Phase, during which it determines the mapping between each symbolic reference (a logical address) and a direct reference (a physical address). After resolution, the symbolic reference has been replaced with a direct reference, creating a direct and permanent link between the code that uses the reference and a memory location. It is important to note that in Java the resolution of symbolic references occurs only once. Subsequent references to symbols are not re-resolved; they simply use the established direct reference.

For example, in the following code, the instantiation of a new instance of the Date class may cause the classloader to locate the class and load it into memory (if this is the first use of the Date class), create an instance of the class somewhere in the heap, call the class initialization method, and resolve the symbolic reference representing the date variable to the appropriate location in memory:

Date date = new Date();

Subsequent references to date, however, do not initiate another resolution process by the classloader:

long time = date.getTime()

This is all fine until one starts to consider issues of system malleability. One way to think about this code is from the perspective of a client and a service. The program being written assumes the role of the client and the instance of the Date class is the service. This may not seem like a problem until you ask a question such as "How do I replace the Date service with an updated implementation while the system is running?". If you need to do this extrinsically (for example, you are managing a system and you need to replace a portion of the system with updated code) you have a problem. With a traditional Java application this is difficult since, as in our example above, the class has been loaded into memory and all symbolic references have been replaced with direct references. Adding this flexibility is possible, but comes at the cost of adding complexity (such as class-loading and management code) to the program.

Binding in the World Wide Web

For contrast, let's look at binding in an incredibly flexible system; the largest and most robust information system yet created: the World Wide Web.

The Web has succeed in part because of a fundamental economic property - one can add value at a low "marginal cost" [3]. Whole web sites are added everyday, existing web sites change their content and web sites disappear - all without disrupting the Web as a whole and at a very low cost per unit. This is a fundamentally different computing proposition than is found in Java applications; where a change in a class can result in extensive work (propagating API changes across the code base, integration testing, deployment, restarting the application, etc.)

For example, if the Web worked the way Java does, one could add new web sites at any time (just as Java programs cause the loading of new classes on demand). Any changes or updates to a web site, however, would require the Web to be restarted. Yes, this is a slight exaggeration - but hopefully it raises the question "Why can't software applications have the same desirable characteristics as the Web?".

From another perspective, the World Wide Web can be thought of as continuously responding to requirements which are constantly changing. Like the Web, most modern software systems also need to respond to frequently changing requirements. So, what is needed to make software applications that are as flexible as the Web in this respect?

Web-like Binding in Applications

Since the Web has interesting economic properties and great flexibility, one might wonder if we can incorporate these same properties within our applications by making our applications more "web-like". Is it possible to use web-like binding inside of application software? If so, what technology can do this?

Before we explore these questions, let's review how the Web works. A client program (in most cases, a browser) is given a logical address by its user and the browser makes a request for a representation of the resource located at that address [4]. When the resource representation is returned to the browser, the browser "interprets" the representation and (usually) creates a visual display for the user. For example, entering the logical address "https://www.theserverside.com" causes the browser to request the resource representation at that address. The representation returned is an XHTML document with embedded JavaScript and links to other resources, which the browser must also request and then assemble into a final visual presentation.

From the user's perspective, they have entered an address that is available within a global context. The user does not know that a temporary binding occurred between their browser and the web server. In fact, the user does not know, and need not care, where the resource representation physically comes from.

Technologically, what occurs is the following:

  1. The browser submits a query to the Domain Name Service (DNS) for "www.theserverside.com" and gets back the IP address of a server registered as the endpoint for the domain address.
  2. The browser uses this information to make a TCP/IP connection to the IP address at port 80.
  3. The browser uses the connection to send an HTTP protocol request to "GET" the resource with the address "/" relative to "www.theserverside.com".
  4. The server endpoint receives the HTTP request and does whatever processing it deems necessary to obtain or create and then return a resource representation for the given logical address ("/").
  5. The browser receives the representation, processes it and creates a visual display for the user.
  6. The browser drops the TCP/IP connection and "un-binds" from the endpoint [5].

Getting back to our question, how can we incorporate the desirable properties of this proven architecture within a software application? When examining the architecture of the Web, we note several key ideas:

  • Client code is separate from server endpoints.
  • An address resolution mechanism locates endpoints for a given logical resource address.
  • Endpoints return resource representations.
  • The binding between clients and endpoints is transient; only valid for the duration of the request.
  • Endpoints have knowledge of the address they are processing.

One way to implement these characteristics in application software is to introduce the idea of an Intermediary. Client code can then send requests to the Intermediary which can resolve the logical address to an endpoint, send the request to the endpoint, accept the returned resource representation and pass that back to the client code. At the end of this cycle, the binding between the client and the endpoint can be dropped.

We also need logical addresses that clients can use to request resources. Universal Resource Identifiers (URIs) [6] work well for the Web and they can serve us too. The URI specification supports the creation of new schemes. Because existing schemes, such as http:, ftp:, etc., all have associated protocols and are used outside of and between applications, we should define our own scheme. Let's pick a somewhat arbitrary scheme, such as "resource:". With this URI scheme, if a client wants a representation of all customers, it can create and send a request to the Intermediary for


It is then the responsibility of the Intermediary to:

  1. Resolve the logical address to an endpoint.
  2. Send the request to the endpoint.
  3. Accept the representation returned by the service endpoint and send it back to the requesting client.
  4. Drop any connection it establishes between the client and the endpoint.

If the clients and services were written in Java, what might they look like? The client will need access to the Intermediary so, for now, let's say it is available by reference in a variable named "context". The client code might then look like this:

Request req;
Representation rep;

req = context.createRequest("resource:/customers/");
rep = context.issueRequest(req);

and the service endpoint code might look like this:

public void processRequest(Context context) throws Exception
  Request request = context.getRequest();


  Representation rep = // some code to create the representation

Interesting, but does this really work like the Web? It seems to:

  • Clients make a logical request for a resource and don't know the location of the service endpoint that will process their request.
  • The binding between the client and the resolved endpoint exists only for the duration of the request processing.
  • Service endpoints return a resource representation to the client.
  • Additional services can be added at any time - for example an endpoint for the address "resource:/accounts/...". Service endpoints can be updated at any time, as long as the Intermediary can suspend the forwarding of requests to a service endpoint while the update is handled.

This is a good start...but Web requests also include a "verb" that specifies the type of operation which is being requested of the service endpoint. The HTTP protocol, for instance, defines a well-known set of "methods" (aka verbs) such as GET, POST, PUT, and so on. For our system, let's introduce a slightly modified set of verbs: SOURCE, SINK, NEW, EXISTS, and DELETE.

We should also think more deeply about the nature of the resource representations that will be returned. Most browsers are designed to accept and process a number of different physical representation types (HTML, XHTML, PNG, GIFF, CSS, JavaScript, etc.) but presuming that application software clients can process this variety of types may not make sense. To overcome the problems of strong type binding, we will allow our system much more freedom in the handling of resource representations.

The key idea is that the client and the service endpoint will not need to agree on the type of the returned representation. If the client does not specify a return type, then the endpoint is free to return any type it chooses. If the client does specify a return type but the endpoint is not able to return that type, it will still return some representation. In this case, the Intermediary is free to determine if it can transform the representation from the type provided to the type requested (for example, transforming an XML fragment to a JSON representation). Finally, we allow the result of a request to be a failure return if the requested type is not available or cannot be created from the returned representation.

Let's see how these additional factors play out in the client and service endpoint code:

Request req;
Representation rep;

req = context.createRequest("resource:/customers/");
rep = context.issueRequest(req);

and the service endpoint code might look like this:

public void processRequest(Context context) throws Exception
  Request request = context.getRequest();

  List customers = new LinkedList();
  // add customers to the list

While this may look like traditional linking between a consumer and a provider in a Java application, the ability of the Intermediary to transform resource representations enables a much looser notion of binding between the client and server. For example, if the client code in the last example was the following:

req = context.createRequest("resource:/customers/");
rep = context.issueRequest(req);

The List type returned by the service would not match the requested DOM XML format. The Intermediary in this case would search for a service that could transform the List representation into a DOM representation and request this transformation automatically and transparently to both the client and the service. This transformation of a representation or "transrepresentation" gives our system increased decoupling between clients and services and increases the ease with which applications can be composed.

Note, also, that the Intermediary provides complete physical isolation between clients and services - the client never has access to the physical location of the service; something that is not present in a typical, physically-bound Java application. This isolation, achieved through logical binding, is one of the ways that we can provide Web-like characteristics in application software.

Future Directions

Even though our Intermediary provides great power to our architecture it has, so far, been fairly simple. As you may have guessed, the Intermediary itself can be enhanced to provide additional capabilities; such as controlling threads of execution, transforming representation types, loading and managing Java classes, supporting other programming languages, and managing the specification and mapping of logical address namespaces in which addresses are resolved. In future articles, we will discuss some of these enhancements and the additional power that they provide.

We have started to show how one can build a system for developing application software that captures the economic benefits of the World Wide Web. We began at a low level - with binding. We discussed an approach that uses URI logical addresses and an Intermediary that resolves the addresses to service endpoints. We then explored prototypical Java code for clients and services in such an approach. Finally, we discussed the issue of matching the representation types returned by a service to those requested by clients.

As interest in REST and RESTful design increases, we will see creative technologies aimed at supporting this approach. Some will be RESTful only at the edges and will miss the full benefits found by taking REST to the core of new applications. In subsequent articles we will explore an approach to pushing REST all the way to the core of new applications and how the sought-after economic benefits are, in fact, realized.


[1] Roy Fielding, Dissertation for PhD at UC, Irvine, http://www.ics.uci.edu/~fielding/pubs/dissertation/top.htm
[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Name_binding
[3] In economics the term "marginal cost" refers to the cost of adding a unit of production, which in the case of the Web is a new page on a web site or even a whole new web site.
[4] The browser will get an immutable copy of the information located at the requested address.
[5] Optionally the browser may keep the connection open to efficiently request other resources from the same endpoint. This is just a performance enhancement and does not change the logical model. (It is as if the browser "caches" the resolution to the endpoint for a short period of time)
[6] http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt

About the Authors

Tom Hicks is a software consultant at Tohono Consulting in Tucson, Arizona. He specializes in enterprise architectures and technologies which make the "plumbing" of the Internet more capable and easier to use. Tom holds graduate degrees in Computer Science and Cognitive Science and is interested in the confluence of these fields with Linguistics.

Randy Kahle is a director of 1060 Research, Ltd a company dedicated to researching and realizing the benefits of RESTful systems. Previously he worked for Hewlett-Packard, Microsoft, MageLang Institute and Variantia. He holds a BA from Rice University in CS and EE and an MBA from the Tuck School at Dartmouth.

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